Our studies can be divided into two main areas, (1) pathophysiological mechanisms of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, and (2) structural biology of diabetes and obesity. Type 1 or insulin-dependent diabetes is caused by insulin deficiency, in most cases due to autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Fewer than 1 in 10 diabetics have this more severe form of the disease. Type 2 diabetes is much more common, and its prevalence is rapidly rising. Type 2 diabetes or NIDDM, affects greater than 10% of our population. In type 2 diabetes insulin is present, often in excess, but target tissues fail to respond appropriately. This is referred to as insulin resistance, a problem in signal transduction.